first_imgAt 98 percent specificity, the WGBS assay detected 41 percent of early-stage (stage I-IIIA) lung cancers and 89 percent of late-stage (stage IIIB-IV) lung cancers. The WGS assay was similarly effective, detecting 38 percent of early-stage cancers and 87 percent of late-stage cancers, whereas the targeted assay detected 51 percent of early-stage cancers and 89 percent of late-stage cancers.The initial results showed that all three assays could detect lung cancer with a low rate of false positives (in which a test indicates a person has cancer when there is no cancer). Of the 580 samples from people without cancer at the time of enrollment in the sub-study, five (less than 1 percent) had a cancer-like signal across all three assays. Of those five participants, two were subsequently diagnosed with cancer (one with stage III ovarian cancer and one with stage II endometrial cancer) – highlighting the potential for such tests to identify early-stage cancers.Among participants with lung cancer, the study found that more than 54 percent of the somatic (non-inherited) mutations detected in blood samples were derived from white blood cells and not from tumors. These mutations are likely the result of natural aging processes (so-called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, or CHIP) and will need to be taken into account when developing blood tests for early detection of blood cancers, noted Oxnard.The researchers are verifying these results in an independent group of approximately 1,000 participants from CCGA as part of the same sub-study. Following this, they will continue to optimize the assays, then validate them in an even larger data set from CCGA. With increased sample sizes, machine learning approaches are expected to improve assay performance, Oxnard noted. Source:http://www.dana-farber.org/ Jun 4 2018A test that analyzes free-floating DNA in the blood may be able to detect early-stage lung cancer, a preliminary report from the ongoing Circulating Cell-Free Genome Atlas (CCGA) study suggests.The findings, from one of the first studies to explore whether sequencing blood-borne DNA is a feasible approach to the early cancer detection, will be featured in a press briefing today and presented at the 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.”We’re excited that the initial results from the CCGA study show it is possible to detect early-stage lung cancer from blood samples using genome sequencing,” said lead study author Geoffrey R. Oxnard, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. “There is an unmet need globally for early-detection tests for lung cancer that can be easily implemented by health-care systems. These are promising early results and the next steps are to further optimize the assays and validate the results in a larger group of people.”Early diagnosis is key to improving survival rates for lung cancer. A blood test that could be done through a simple blood draw at the doctor’s office could potentially have a major impact on survival, but before such a test could be widely used, additional validation in larger data sets and in studies involving people who have not been diagnosed with cancer would be needed, researchers say.Tests that analyze cell-free DNA in blood, known as “liquid biopsies,” are already used to help choose targeted therapies for people already diagnosed with lung cancer. Until recently, there has been limited evidence to indicate that cell-free DNA analysis may be feasible for early detection of the disease.The CCGA study has enrolled more than 12,000 of the planned 15,000 participants (70 percent with cancer, 30 percent without cancer) across 141 sites in the United States and Canada.The new report is from the first sub-study from the CCGA, in which three prototype sequencing assays were performed on blood samples from approximately 1,700 participants. Twenty different cancer types of all stages were included in the sub-study (additional early results from the sub-study, including breast, gastrointestinal, gynecologic, blood and other cancers will be presented separately at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting).In this initial analysis, researchers explored the ability of the three assays to detect cancer in 127 people with stage I-IV lung cancer. The assays were designed to detect cancer-defining signals (mutations and other genomic changes) that could be used in an early cancer detection test:Related StoriesTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerUsing machine learning algorithm to accurately diagnose breast cancer Targeted sequencing to detect non-inherited (somatic) mutations, such as single nucleotide variants and small insertions and/or deletions; Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to detect somatic gene copy number changes; Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of cell-free DNA to detect epigenetic changes.last_img read more

first_imgJul 27 2018A new study has shown that genetic variation may increase the risk of severe liver damage in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis B infection.Researchers from the Westmead Institute for Medical Research found that Caucasian patients with a variation in their STAT4 gene were more likely to experience inflammation and severe liver fibrosis.Dr Rasha El Sharkawy, the first author of the study, said the findings add to the growing body of evidence that demonstrates a link between genes and the progression of hepatitis B.”The progression of liver injury in hepatitis B can vary significantly among patients, which indicates that genetic factors may play a role,” Dr El Sharkawy said.Related StoriesResearchers explain why fascioliasis patients have increased risk for neurological diseasesLiving a healthy lifestyle may help offset genetic risk of dementiaGene modulation goes wireless hacking the “boss gene”The STAT4 gene is part of the body’s immune response against viruses and regulates tissue inflammation, fibrosis and anti-viral activity.”We found that patients with the risk genetic variation had lower expression of STAT4 in their liver and immune cells, reducing their immune response against hepatitis B and their production of interferon gamma, a protein responsible for moderating fibrosis.”This may, at least partially explain why patients with the variation experience poorer liver health,” Dr El Sharkawy explained.Approximately one third of the world’s population have come into contact with hepatitis B, with 350-400 million people developing a chronic infection. If left untreated, chronic infections can lead to liver injury, liver cancer, and liver failure, with more than one million deaths attributed to cirrhosis and cancer each year.”Not everyone who comes into contact with the virus will develop a chronic infection, but those that do, require treatment to prevent severe complications, including liver failure and damage,” Dr El Sharkawy said.Professor Jacob George and Associate Professor Mohammed Eslam, leaders of the research study, said that with further study, researchers could better understand how the STAT4 gene affects the progression of hepatitis B, so that they can prevent liver injury and failure in at-risk groups.Source: https://www.westmeadinstitute.org.au/news-and-events/2018/genetic-variation-may-increase-risk-of-liver-damaglast_img read more

first_img Source:http://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=5867 Aug 21 2018The results of a large, international systematic review published in the journal PLOS Medicine show that tuberculosis treatment is successful in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The study was used to inform the World Health Organization guidelines on treatment of MDR-TB in children.The study, which involved a collaborative group of international researchers, included a systematic review and patient data meta-analysis on the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 975 children from 18 countries. The results show that 78% (764 of 975) of these children had successful treatment outcomes when treated with second-line MDR-TB drugs.”An estimated 32 000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (resistant to the two main TB drugs, namely isoniazid and rifampicin), each year. Treatment for MDR-TB is of a longer duration and requires drugs that are more toxic. These regimens are frequently hard to tolerate, particularly in children, due to the length of treatment, drug toxicity and the lack of child-friendly formulations,” said one of the authors Prof. Anneke Hesseling from the Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. “To date, little has been known about the optimal treatment for these children. This review therefore gives vitally important information as to potential outcomes and some very good news for the TB field.””There are too few examples where researchers share their data for the public good, and this is impressively what this global team of researchers did – this helped to ensure that we could capture all published and unpublished evidence for treating children with MDR-TB. The search yielded 2772 reports and, ultimately, 33 studies were eligible for inclusion,” said Dr Tamara Kredo, co-author and Senior Specialist at Cochrane South Africa, an intramural research unit of the South African Medical Research Council.Related StoriesResearchers identify gene mutations linked to leukemia in children with Down’s syndromeNew therapeutic food boosts key growth-promoting gut microbes in malnourished childrenRevolutionary gene replacement surgery restores vision in patients with retinal degenerationNeed for HIV treatmentThe review also showed the urgent need for HIV treatment in children with HIV and TB co-infection. TB treatment was less successful in children who were HIV positive but not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).”Treatment was successful in only 56% of children with bacteriologically confirmed TB who were infected with HIV who did not receive any antiretroviral treatment during MDR-TB therapy,” said Hesseling, “compared to 82% in children infected with HIV who received ART during MDR-TB therapy.””This highlights the urgent need for ART in these children, which should be a priority in our setting, where rates of HIV/TB coinfection are so high,” she added.Malnutrition was shown as another factor that affected treatment outcome and highlights the need for aggressive solutions.Second-line injectable agents and high-dose isoniazid were associated with treatment success. However, a high proportion of children with non-severe disease who received no second-line injectable agents still did well.”This means children with non-severe disease may be able to be spared from these more toxic medications,” said Hesseling.”Further work is still needed on individual drug effects on treatment outcome,” added Kredo. “Although these results were used to update the WHO guidelines, further rigorously collected evidence is needed to help guide the management of MDR-TB treatment in children globally. This work gives us more understanding of the potential success of treatment, the potential for certain children to receive less-intensive, less-toxic regimens, and an understanding of risk factors for poor outcomes across settings, which is important for designing future treatment regimens.”last_img read more

first_imgReviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Sep 19 2018Arizona emergency medical technicians’ risk for suicide is 39-percent higher than the general public, according to a new study conducted by University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix researchers.Neil Vigil, a second-year UA medical student, and Bentley Bobrow, MD, associate director of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center – Phoenix and professor in emergency medicine at the UA College of Medicine – Phoenix, recently completed the first peer-reviewed publication that specifically studied EMTs.”Although we were bracing ourselves to find an increase in suicides among our EMTs, I was really shocked that it was that large,” said Vigil, who is also a Tillman Scholar. “These findings help move the discussion of EMT suicide beyond the anecdotal and personal experiences and adds hard data showing there is a problem that needs to be addressed.”After seeing the surprising results, Vigil said he wanted to act immediately to find effective solutions. Working with the Arizona Department of Health Services (AZDHS), they developed an EMS resiliency website that presents educational materials and resources to help build resiliency and reduce EMS suicide.Then he teamed up with the Golder Ranch Fire District near Tucson’s Mount Lemmon to measure the effectiveness of resiliency training.Vigil and Dr. Bobrow also are exploring the potential to incorporate resiliency and suicide-prevention training into the EMT certification process at the state level.Suicide rates among the general population steadily have increased, with suicide now ranking in the nation’s top 10 overall causes of death. Although the EMS profession has abnormally high suicide rates, as the results clearly showed, very little peer-reviewed research exists on the topic.”On the worst days of our life, we know that firefighters and EMS professionals stand ready to respond at a moment’s notice, even at the risk of their own personal safety,” Vigil said.”They are community heroes who sacrifice an incredible amount to be there for us in our time of need. I feel that it’s our community’s duty to help identify and minimize the risks associated with their service. As a former U.S. Army medic and EMT myself, this subject really connects with me on a personal level.”In 2014, a large North American survey conducted by the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians was published, suggesting EMTs have a 10-fold higher incidence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Around the same time, the Arizona community had experienced several EMT suicide deaths.Related StoriesComplement system shown to remove dead cells in retinitis pigmentosa, contradicting previous researchScientists develop universal FACS-based approach to heterogenous cell sorting, propelling organoid researchSchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds research”We started by asking the basic question, ‘What is the suicide rate of EMTs in Arizona?'” Dr. Bobrow said. “As our research team began to try to answer this question, we realized that while simple, it was not an easy question to answer because there is no sole-source EMT suicide database. So we attempted to answer the question utilizing a combination of Arizona Death Record Data (searching for occupation fields in the Death Registry corresponding to EMT). It was extremely laborious, and imperfect, but it was a way we at least could estimate the true scope of this problem.”Their data set covers a five-year period ending in December 2015. Vigil started the research last fall as part of his UA College of Medicine – Phoenix “scholarly project,” with Dr. Bobrow, serving as his mentor. The study was presented at the 2018 National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physician’s meeting and recently published online in Prehospital Emergency Care. (DOI: 10.1080/10903127.2018.1514090)”We were surprised at how many actual EMT suicides we found every year in Arizona – on average nine per year,” Dr. Bobrow said. “Each one is a tremendous tragedy and made our study very personal for us. We were very motivated to publish this paper and to work toward improving this horrible situation.”They hypothesize that the causes of the high suicide rates are multi-factorial and likely are related to work stress, shift work, a culture of not wanting to ask for help, repeated exposure to seeing suicide and other tragedies, among other factors.”Physicians not only are clinicians, but also scientists,” Vigil said. “Our role as physicians is not only to practice medicine, but also to conduct research that adds to the body of knowledge that evidence-based medicine is drawn from. The scholarly project requirement at the UA College of Medicine – Phoenix does an excellent job pairing students with community mentors and providing guidance through the entire research process. I know I’ll carry the skills I’m learning with my scholarly project into my career as a physician.” Source:http://uahs.arizona.edu/last_img read more

first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Sixteen-year-old Sophia Sánchez-Maes is all about algae. The slimy green stuff is an attractive candidate for biofuel production, but Sánchez-Maes wondered why the biofuel startups near her hometown of Las Cruces, New Mexico, weren’t having more success. “I’d heard all these stats about how awesome algae was and the potential, but I just wasn’t seeing it in my everyday life,” she says. “I kind of wanted to fix that.” After doing some digging, Sánchez-Maes found that the algae operations near Las Cruces were putting more energy into fuel production than they got out, so she set out to pioneer a new process that produces a positive energy yield.The result earned Sánchez-Maes a coveted spot in Monday’s White House Science Fair, where more than 100 elementary, middle, and high school students shared their research with President Barack Obama and other government officials. “We’ve got to celebrate the winners of our science fairs as much as we celebrate the winners of football or basketball or other athletic competitions,” Obama said in a speech honoring the students. The young scientists and inventors studied topics that ranged from carbon dioxide–powered batteries to software that identifies breast cancer–causing genetic mutations to spine implants for young scoliosis patients.center_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sánchez-Maes began her research by computationally modeling algae growth to determine how biofuel companies could optimize their operations. But, she says, this was “only the tip of the iceberg” for challenges that biofuel operations face. She then worked to develop a process that eliminates the most energy-intensive part of the biofuelmaking process—drying the algae and extracting its lipids. The new method involves “pressure-cooking” the algae and using catalysts to make the process more energy-efficient. But Sánchez-Maes didn’t stop there. She is now studying a type of algae that feeds on contaminants in wastewater, eliminating the need for sunlight that can hold back some biofuel plants. Thanks to a collaboration with researchers at Stanford University and New Mexico State University, among others, a wastewater treatment plant in her hometown is now demoing the technology. “She’s helping to bring the world closer to using algae as a clean, renewable, and even inexhaustible energy source,” Obama said.Sánchez-Maes wasn’t the only student to focus on biofuels. Eric Koehlmoos, 18, ran a biofuel project from the most unlikely of places—his basement. Because it was a several-hour drive from his home in rural Granville, Iowa, to the nearest lab, he labored mostly alone on his project: the production of ethanol from prairie cordgrass and switchgrass. He found that by treating the grasses with calcium hydroxide, or lime, he could boost ethanol production in certain grasses by 80%, making it a viable alternative to corn-based ethanol. The grasses can grow on land that isn’t suitable for corn or other crops, and byproducts could serve another purpose—cattle feed. To get started on his project, Koehlmoos consulted with a local ethanol plant and researchers at South Dakota State University. “Without them, I probably couldn’t have done my project,” he said.Other students focused on cybersecurity and computer technology. One of them—Nikhil Behari, 14—developed a protocol that may one day protect your Facebook page from hackers. Using a system that measures the amount of time and pressure unique users apply to their keystrokes, the Pennsylvania student created a protocol he says is more than 98% accurate in identifying individuals. Just as we all have distinct fingerprints, each person has a unique typing style, which a computer can detect to ensure your password hasn’t fallen into the wrong hands. Participating in the fair, Behari says, was inspiring. “I’ve met so many amazing people, and … they’ve given me even more motivation to do the science and work that I’ve been doing.”In his remarks, Obama emphasized the importance of continuous support for science research and education, announcing an additional $240 million in funding for the administration’s Educate to Innovate program. “It’s not enough for our country just to be proud of you,” he told the students. “We’ve also got to support you.”This year’s science fair—the fifth since it was launched in 2010—emphasized the importance of including minorities and women in science. Participants included first-generation Americans and a troop of 6-year-old Girl Scouts from Tulsa, Oklahoma. The girls, just beginning their first adventures in science and technology, created a machine made of Legos that automatically turns book pages to assist disabled people.“Science is for all of us,” Obama said. “And we want our classrooms and labs and workplaces and media to reflect that.”last_img read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe In addition to vacating a lower court’s ruling in 2014 that upheld the permit, the court ordered the state board to conduct the required hearing. A new permit would be required for TMT construction to proceed.Protests and lawsuits have extensively delayed efforts to begin construction of the TMT, which is expected to cost more than $1 billion and become one of the most powerful land-based telescopes in the world. Native Hawaiian groups say the project represents an inappropriate use of sacred land, and that state agencies have improperly ignored their views. Protesters began blocking a road to the telescope site this past April, halting construction, and more recent clashes have prevented resumption of construction.With reporting by Ilima Loomis in Hawaii. Native Hawaiian groups seeking to block construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) atop the state’s Mauna Kea volcano have won a major court victory. Hawaii’s Supreme Court today ruled that a state planning board acted improperly in 2011 in granting a permit for TMT construction before it completed a hearing on objections to the permit.“Quite simply, the [state Board of Land and Natural Resources] put the cart before before the horse when it issued the permit before the request for a contested case hearing was resolved and the hearing was held,” Chief Justice Mark Recktenwald wrote in a 2 December opinion. “Accordingly, the permit cannot stand.”center_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Emaillast_img read more

first_imgThey’re too young to read Yelp reviews, but new research shows that preschoolers use gossip to help their peers avoid cheaters. Scientists asked a few dozen 3- and 5-year-olds to play a sharing game with two puppets. In each game, a child was supposed to give a puppet four tokens, or vice versa. One of the puppets always followed the rules, but the other cheated, giving the child too few or too many tokens. After the puppets left, the researchers brought a second child into the room and recorded any comments the first child made to the second one. Overall, only 23% of the 3-year-olds who spoke made a suggestion that had something to do with the puppet’s behavior (instead of things like its shirt color)—information that would be useful to the second child in deciding which puppet to play with, the team reports in the British Journal of Development Psychology. The 5-year-olds had better gossip. Fifty-four percent of them offered a reason for avoiding one puppet that related to that puppet’s unfair playing style, even if one puppet were breaking the rules by giving more tokens than agreed on. Because of a paucity of studies on this topic involving children, scientists previously had little evidence that people gossiped before approximately age 10. Gossip, other work has shown, helps adults form relationships with people who will cooperate with them and avoid bullies. And now we know that even preschoolers perform this valuable social function.last_img read more

first_img NIH’s neuroscience institute will limit grants to well-funded labs By Jocelyn KaiserMay. 2, 2018 , 4:45 PM Finkelstein says NINDS’s plan is “not an attempt to bring back the GSI.” But the institute needs to find the money to meet its targets for the next generation initiative. NINDS’s council is also concerned that some scientists with multiple grants are devoting as little as 3.5 weeks per year to a particular grant. That’s “ridiculous,” Finkelstein says, because it’s not enough bandwidth to manage rigorous research and mentor trainees.To fix these problems, starting in January 2019 NINDS will tighten a 6-year-old, NIH-wide policy that requires institute councils to give extra scrutiny to proposals from labs that already have $1 million or more per year in direct funding (not including overhead costs). Because that policy is “too subjective,” the council has rejected only a handful of proposals from such labs, Finkelstein says.Now, at NINDS, the special review will be more stringent: It will apply to investigators whose proposed grant will push them over $1 million in total NIH support—not those at that level already. (Nonresearch awards such as training grants won’t count.) To win funding, the proposal will have to receive a peer-review score in the upper half of the overall NINDS cutoff for funding. The funding cutoff this fiscal year is the 15th percentile, so such a proposal would have to fall in the top seventh percentile.“We will make very few exceptions” for inherently expensive projects such as clinical trials, Finkelstein says. If all goes as planned, the policy could free up $15 million a year, which should be enough to fund more early-career and at-risk investigators without cutting into NINDS’s overall pay line, NINDS says. Only one other NIH institute, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, has a similar, even more stringent policy.Some research groups applaud the move. “When the GSI went away the problem of funding more investigators didn’t disappear. So something has to be done to fund more people,” says Howard Garrison, director of public affairs at the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology in Bethesda. Cell biologist Mark Peifer of the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, who has pushed to bring back the GSI, adds: “Of course the key is in actually implementing it.”*Correction, 3 May, 11:45 a.m.: This story has been updated to correct the name of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.*Correction, 7 May, 12:27 p.m.: The description of the funding cutoff for the new policy has been clarified. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe iStock.com/Hotaik Sung Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Email Big laboratories are back in the crosshairs at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH’s neurological institute plans to pare back the number of investigators it supports who have $1 million or more in NIH grants.The policy “will allow us to fund more early stage investigators and help people who just missed the pay line [funding cutoff] and are about to drop off the radar screen,” says Robert Finkelstein, extramural research director at the $2.1 billion National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) in Bethesda, Maryland, NIH’s fifth largest institute.The 27 April policy brings to mind a hugely controversial proposal a year ago to limit the number of NIH grants an investigator could hold at the equivalent of three basic R01 awards. The cap, called the Grant Support Index (GSI), was meant to free up funds for early- and mid-career researchers. The GSI drew an outcry from many researchers, however. NIH replaced it with the Next Generation Researchers Initiative, which will direct $210 million a year to 400 early stage investigators and others at risk of losing all support. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The National Institutes of Health’s neuroscience institute plans to free up funds for young and at-risk investigators by limiting support for large labs.last_img read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Drought is not just about water. It affects air pollution, too By Jason PlautzApr. 11, 2019 , 3:10 PM The severe drought that struck California from 2011 to 2015 had an obvious impact on rivers, forests, and wildlife. Now, a new study shows it also had some surprising effects on the state’s notorious air pollution, adding new wrinkles to the state’s efforts to clear the skies.Researchers have long known that plants can both help create and cleanse one dangerous air pollutant: ground-level ozone, which causes breathing problems and exacerbates lung damage. Plants can scrub ozone from the air by absorbing the pollutant through their stomata, or pores. But certain plants also emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that react with other atmospheric chemicals to create ozone.Understanding how drought influences these two processes can be tricky. Dry conditions could cause ozone levels to rise, because plants shrink their stomata to prevent water loss, reducing their ability to remove pollution. But drought might also reduce ozone levels, because the stress could cause plants to produce fewer ozone-forming VOCs. 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Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Justin Sullivan/Getty Images A lengthy California drought left trees and plants parched and influenced their contributions to smog. California’s lengthy drought, and the state’s extensive network of air pollution sensors, gave researchers a rare opportunity to see what happens in the real world. The team, led by atmospheric chemistry Ph.D. candidate Angelique Demetillo and environmental science professor Sally Pusede at the University of Virginia (UVA) in Charlottesville, examined more than a decade’s worth of satellite and sensor data that documented atmospheric conditions over Bakersfield and Fresno, two California cities that suffer from ozone pollution.The drought’s impact on air quality changed over time, the researchers report this week in Environmental Science & Technology. Plants did remove less ozone, with absorption dropping by about 15% during the most severe years of the drought. But during the early years of the drought, trees and other plants were able to maintain their production of one key ozone-forming VOC, isoprene. The chemical helps plants like oak trees withstand heat stress, and it appears the trees draw on carbon stores to sustain isoprene production. “It’s like a person exercising; when you’ve burned through your recent consumption the body switches over and starts burning fat,” says Manuel Lerdau, an organismal ecologist at UVA and a co-author of the study.After about 4 years of drought, however, the stress took its toll. In 2013, plant isoprene levels fell dramatically, by 65% in Bakersfield and 54% in Fresno. Overall, that meant up to a 20% dip in ozone pollution. And even after the drought ended, isoprene levels didn’t immediately rebound.The plant VOC reduction might sound like good news for reducing California’s smog. But the complexity of atmospheric chemistry means droughts could actually complicate clean air efforts. That’s because, currently, regulations mostly focus on controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from sources like cars and factories, which react with VOCs to form ozone. When VOC levels are higher, those NOx controls help choke off smog-creating reactions. But reduce the VOCs, and NOx limits go from “being very effective to less effective,” Pusede says.Such findings offer yet another complication for U.S. states and cities struggling to meet federal clean air standards, especially in drought-prone western states. Regulators have little ability to control VOC emissions from plants, notes Pusede, and “I don’t know if we’d want to even if we could.” But the study could help regulators do a better job of factoring drought into their air pollution models.The work also “provides a road map for better quantifying these impacts in other places,” says atmospheric scientist Jessica Neu of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who reviewed the paper. And because much of the needed data can now be collected by satellites, she says it opens the door to investigating “drought impacts on air quality globally.”last_img read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country New call to ban gene-edited babies divides biologists Conducting research that alters human embryos with the genome editor CRISPR (shown here) would not be banned if a proposed moratorium goes in place, but implanting altered human embryos would. A prominent group of 18 scientists and bioethicists from seven countries has called for a global “moratorium” on introducing heritable changes into human sperm, eggs, or embryos—germline editing—to make genetically altered children. The group, which published a commentary in Nature today, hopes to influence a long-standing debate that dramatically intensified after China’s He Jiankui announced in November 2018 that he used the genome editor CRISPR to try to alter the genes of babies to be resistant to the AIDS virus.Their call, which is endorsed in the same issue of Nature by Francis Collins, director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, is a departure from statements issued by two global summits on genome editing in 2015 and 2018, a 2017 report from the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM), and a 2018 report from the United Kingdom’s Nuffield Council on Bioethics. None has banned human germline editing, and most have stressed that it holds promise to help correct some heritable diseases. All have warned against using germline editing for cognitive or physical “enhancement” of people. Scientists including Nobel laureate David Baltimore of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena remain opposed to a moratorium. Even in the wake of the He incident, Baltimore, who helped organize the summits, denounced such a ban as “draconian” and “antithetical to the goals of science.”Any nation that wants to greenlight a human germline edit by its scientists, the 18 authors declare, should have to give public notice, engage in an international and transparent assessment of whether the intervention is justified, and make sure the work has broad support in their own nation. “Nations might well choose different paths, but they would agree to proceed openly and with due respect to the opinions of humankind on an issue that will ultimately affect the entire species,” they write. They strongly encourage that nonscientific perspectives, including those of people with disabilities and religious groups, be included in the discussion. And they stress that they are not calling for a moratorium on genome editing of somatic cells, which would not affect future generations. Mark Schiefelbein/AP Photo Emailcenter_img By Jon CohenMar. 13, 2019 , 2:00 PM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Nor are they proposing a permanent ban on human germline alterations, but instead a fixed period—“five years might be appropriate,” the group writes—in which governments would pledge not to allow it. This moratorium, they argue, would “provide time to establish an international framework” to proceed, which might include a “coordinating body,” perhaps under the aegis of the World Health Organization (WHO), that would discuss proposals by nations that are considering permitting a specific germline edit.A Nature editorial accompanying the commentary does not explicitly endorse the call for a moratorium but argues for “an open registry” of ethically vetted and approved basic research studies that involve gene editing embryos, sperm, or eggs. It also suggests that a mechanism be created that allows scientists “to flag up potentially dangerous research.” At least a half-dozen scientists knew He planned to edit and implant human embryos—or indeed already had—but, at his request, kept the information confidential.Several major national science academies have committed to analyze the issue over the next year. “There is the urgent need for the framework,” says Victor Dzau, president of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine in Washington, D.C., who co-authored yet another letter in this week’s issue of Nature detailing NASEM’s plans to address germline editing. (It notably did not mention the moratorium issue.) And WHO on 18–19 March will convene its newly formed Expert Advisory Committee on Developing Global Standards for Governance and Oversight of Human Genome Editing.Co-signatories on the Nature commentary calling for a moratorium include CRISPR pioneers Feng Zhang of the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens in Berlin, as well as Nobel laureate Paul Berg of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Berg and Baltimore both helped organize the famed Asilomar conference in 1975, often viewed as a model for dealing with new and potentially risky biotechnologies. It proposed regulations on then-controversial recombinant DNA experiments, including bans on work with dangerous pathogens.Baltimore agrees that germline editing isn’t safe or medically justifiable now, but he hopes it will one day spare humans from disease. “I don’t see the need for, or rationale for, a moratorium,” Baltimore says. “It is a shame that those writing in Nature are forcing the issue to become one of semantics.”Helen O’Neill, a molecular geneticist at University College London who spoke at the November 2018 Hong Kong, China, summit at which He detailed his experiment, notes that a global ban already exists, in effect, because many countries have laws and regulations forbidding human germline editing. “I struggle to see why they felt the need for this statement,” says O’Neill, who worries that a formal moratorium could curtail important research funding. O’Neill further says that given the caveats spelled out by earlier statements and reports, the use of “a strong word like ‘moratorium’ … does not clarify or caution, rather it reiterates confusion and concern.”Jin-Soo Kim of Seoul National University, another member of the organizing committee of the Hong Kong summit, similarly questions the need for a moratorium. “I think that a thorough and transparent investigation of the He case followed by appropriate punishments would be more effective to prevent irresponsible use of gene editing,” Kim says.Wei Wensheng of Peking University in Beijing, who does CRISPR research and is a co-signer of the call for a moratorium, says he’s particularly concerned about preventing the “problem and controversy” from overshadowing the “rightful use” of gene therapy with CRISPR that targets somatic cells.Eric Lander, president of the Broad Institute and another co-signatory, agrees with O’Neill that something akin to a moratorium is already in place but says that isn’t the central point of their editorial. He says he and his co-signatories are ultimately trying to push nations to agree on whether and when to go forward, with the understanding that this is a voluntary pledge. “There’s no way we can legally drag a country to jail for violating something,” Lander says. “You can enforce by international opprobrium.”To Lander, the debate about the word “moratorium” is a distraction and a “boring” question. “Admit that we have a moratorium and embrace the M-word,” he says. “We’re trying to force the spotlight on what comes next.”last_img read more

first_imgShareTweetSharePinA flash flood watch will be in effect for Dominica from 6:00pm today until 12:00pm on Friday, May 31, 2019.This is according to information on the government website weather.gov.dm from the Meteorological Service.This means that flash flooding is possible.A trough system is also projected to generate an increase in cloudiness and shower activity and possible isolated thunderstorms across Dominica mainly from Thursday night into Friday. This activity is likely to be moderate to heavy at times. Current rainfall projections are between 3 to 4 inches (75-100mm) during the period.People in areas that are prone to flooding, landslide and falling rocks should exercise extreme caution during the period. Those in areas which have been experiencing excessively dry conditions over the past months should be especially mindful of landslides and rockfalls.Moisture and instability are likely to linger into the weekend.  The Meteorological Service will continue to monitor the situation and provide the necessary updates as conditions warrant.last_img read more

first_imgWritten by Hina Rohtaki | Chandigarh | Published: July 16, 2019 11:59:18 am Advertising “It is the duty of the engineer to test the temperature at the spot before laying the material. He has to ensure that the gravel, sand, pebbles and bitumen are mixed in the right proportion and that the mixture is spread at the right temperature so that it bonds well. He is also required to ensure that there are no indentations on the road after the roller is used, and the levelling is correct. It is a technical and painstaking process but it ensures smooth and long-lasting roads,” said former chief engineer KB Sharma.Sharma said it is the engineer’s duty to make sure no water collects at the edges because the moment water starts accumulating on the road, it will begin to erode as water is an arch-enemy of the bitumen.He added, “To prevent this, the engineer in charge must ensure that kerbs and channels are laid well to drain out water even before starting the repair work on the road. Kerbs and channels have to be put along the edges so that water does not accumulate there and ruin the road. Also, he has to plug any leaks in the water and sewer pipelines going beneath the roads because that will lead to potholes and the money spent on recarpeting will go waste.” P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off Top News A retired chief engineer said right from Junior Engineer to the Executive Engineer, they are supposed to make repeated checks at the site to ensure that the work is being carried out as per the detailed notice inviting tender. As former UT chief engineer, S K Chadha put it, “An engineer is the virtual owner of the road.”An engineer, who is designated as the road incharge, has to ensure that the material used for recarpeting is at the right temperature (130 degrees C to 140 degrees C) and the weather in which this exercise is undertaken is conducive to recarpeting. Newsline found that in many parts of the city, roads were being recarpeted even when the pre-monsoon showers had started. Later, the work was halted midway. But the question is why was it started in the first place? Why was it not done when the weather was dry and sunny? As per the rule book, it is the cumulative responsibility of the Junior Engineer, Sub-Divisional Engineer and Executive Engineer to ensure that if the work is not up to the mark, it is rejected and done afresh.But if you go by the craters on the arterial road of Madhya Marg that continue to cry for repair, you may come to believe that the engineering wing has no technical knowledge about roads. Members of Youth Congress encircle potholes at Mauli Jagran in Chandigarh on Monday. Jaipal Singh See also page 3As per rules, every road that is laid afresh or recarpeted has to be inspected by officials of the engineering wing. While contractors get the tenders for recarpeting, the onus of ensuring that their work conforms to the specified standards lies on the engineers of the Municipal Corporation’s Building and Roads wing. Advertising Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 1 Comment(s)last_img read more

first_imgTrudeau, speaking partly in French and partly in English said: “The rights we enjoy in Canada, and the rights so many have enjoyed around the world, are not guaranteed. Progress can backslide. Gender equality is not guaranteed. There is pushback… Politicians are giving in… Women routinely face misogyny, discrimination and hate… Women’s right to choose what to do with their own bodies is being questioned.”He did not mention abortion, but his remarks come in the wake of several US states passing stricter laws against abortion. He had earlier said he would talk to the US vice-president on the abortion legislations.The “pushback” against women’s rights set the tone for the conference on the opening day as speakers in side-events including Women Deliver CEO Katja Iversen positioned the conference as a “pushback against the pushback”.The reporter is in Vancouver as a Media Scholar for Women Deliver 2019 Canada frets about potential Chinese crackdown on more exports, mulls Xi meeting Written by Abantika Ghosh | Vancouver | Published: June 5, 2019 5:01:26 am 0 Comment(s) Related News Women’s rights over their bodies being questioned, says Justin Trudeau Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. (Source: AP)Women’s rights are human rights, but a global pushback is now bringing into question a woman’s right to choose what to do with her body, Canadia’s Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, said at the opening plenary of Women Deliver, the world’s largest conference on gender equality and the health, rights, and wellbeing of girls and women. Advertising Plastic straws and bags no more: Canada aims to clean up its act Canada to announce ban on single-use plastics last_img read more

first_img Advertising Advertising Rahul Gandhi exempted from personal appearance in defamation case in Surat Rajasthan Chief Minister Ashok Ghelot and senior Congress leader Ahmed Patel at the dharna site. (ANI)Hundreds of party workers staged a protest outside the Congress headquarters on Akbar Road Tuesday urging party chief Rahul Gandhi to take back his resignation. Later in the evening, Rajasthan Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot and senior Congress leader Ahmed Patel came to the dharna site to express solidarity with the workers and interacted with them. 0 Comment(s) The incident comes in the wake of a spate of resignations by several Congress leaders at different levels.On Monday, for the first time after the Lok Sabha election defeat, Rahul Gandhi met chief ministers of the five Congress-ruled states who asked him to reconsider his decision to step down as Congress president. However, Rahul did not give any indication on changing his mind.Rahul is learnt to have told the CMs that he has already conveyed his decision to the Congress Working Committee (CWC). He also asked them to arrive at a consensus on an alternative.Rahul is said to be upset that none of those state leaders and in charges under whose watch the party fared badly have owned up responsibility and resigned — even after he decided to step down on the principle of accountability. Related News Earlier in the day, a local party worker went to the extent of attempting suicide by hanging from a tree outside Akbar Road but was eventually stopped by Congress leaders present there.Hanif Khan, a local leader, claimed he would “commit suicide by hanging from a tree” if Gandhi did not take back his decision to resign as party chief. “Rahul Gandhi should take back his resignation else I will hang myself,” he told the media before making his attempt.AICC secretaries Mahender Joshi, Naseeb Singh and other leaders, including Delhi working president Rajesh Lilothia, Shobha Oza, Jagdish Tytler also joined the dharna during the day. “We demand that Rahulji should continue as party chief,” PTI quoted Lilothia as saying. In undecided Congress, first open call for Priyanka: She should be party chief Rahul Gandhi appeals to Cong workers to help in relief ops in flood-affected areas By Express Web Desk |New Delhi | Published: July 2, 2019 9:39:25 pmlast_img read more

first_img Advertising Related News Tabrez Ansari, Tabrez Ansari lynching, Tabrez Ansari case, jharkhand lynching, Tabrez Ansari death, jharkhand mob lynching, india news, indian express Tabrez Ansari. (Video grab)“Discrepancies in the police’s version”, “lapses by the doctors” and jail doctor’s recording of injuries “allegedly of mob violence” are some of the key findings in a report by the three-member inquiry panel, constituted by the Saraikela-Kharsawan district administration in Jharkhand, to look into the lapses and response into the death of Tabrez Ansari. The Urdu Press: Lynch Mobs Written by Abhishek Angad | Ranchi | Updated: July 14, 2019 7:56:02 am Advertising Ansari, a welder by profession, was beaten up by a mob in Dhatkidih village of Saraikela-Kharsawan on June 18, after he was caught stealing. The mob had tied him to a pole and thrashed him. A video of the incident shows that the mob allegedly forced him to chant “Jai Shri Ram” and “Jai Hanuman”. Ansari died four days later of a head injury.Sub-divisional magistrate (SDM) Saraikela Basharat Qayyum , then Civil Surgeon A N Dey, and SDPO (headquarter) Chandan Kumar were three members of the panel. Talking to The Sunday Express, SDM Qayyum said that there were “lapses” by the doctors in initially detecting the head injury. “Sub-arachnoid haemorrhage could be a possible cause of death and cannot be ruled out. Injuries were not detected initially and no investigations were ordered. Not even blood pressure and pulse were recorded. This was the initial lapse,” he said.Opinion | Vigilantism 2.0When asked how did the doctors advise Ansari to be fit for travel and allowed him to be taken to the jail, the SDM said, “This is also a lapse.” The Indian Express had first reported on the internal injuries sustained by Ansari where the post-mortem board members had expressed that the injuries were the “possible” cause of death. The actual cause of death will be known after the viscera report.The findings also state that the jail administration knew that Ansari was beaten up by a mob and had injuries by a blunt object. SDM Qayyum said, “The jail doctor in the ‘proforma for health screening of prisoner on admission to jail’ mentioned: ‘Allegedly assaulted by a mob with hard blunt object’.”This assumes significance as the police had maintained earlier that they “never knew” of the mob violence until the purported video went viral on June 22. The three initial court documents the initial theft complaint, subsequent FIR, and Ansari’s confession statement — did not mention anything of the assault. Asked if the police knew about it, the SDM said that he will not be able to comment.The SDM said that the police’s response to the incident could have been better. When asked whether Tabrez was forced to chant as seen in the video, the SDM said, “That is a matter of investigation which the SIT is looking into.” Stir over Jharkhand lynching: Six FIRs registered in UP, 760 booked for Agra protests TikTok suspends accounts of trio who posted video on Jharkhand mob attack 5 Comment(s)last_img read more

first_imgWritten by Abhishek Saha | Guwahati | Updated: July 14, 2019 8:19:00 am Advertising nrc, assam nrc, assam nrc updation, assam nrc supreme court, aasu nrc, All Assam Students Union, nrc bjp application, india news. indian express People check their names in the NRC list during a hearing at a Seva Kendra in Guwahati on Tuesday. (PTI)The All Assam Students Union (AASU) on Saturday criticised the Centre’s and state government’s application to the Supreme Court demanding a sample re-verification of 10-20 per cent of the names which appeared in the draft National Register of Citizens (NRC) published last year. Related News Supreme Court notice to Centre, Assam on pleas against NRC appeal order The All Assam Minority Students’ Union (AAMSU), another stakeholder in the case, said that they are planning to file a counter-affidavit in the SC. “It appears to be an attempt to delay the NRC. Who will carry out the re-verification? It will be the same government officials who have been involved in the NRC process all this while,” AAMSU advisor Azizur Rahman said.However, the government official said that according to their appeal the re-verification was to be done by another official and not the one who had checked documents.After the final draft was published, the SC had last year said in an order on August 28, “At this stage, we may also indicate that pursuant to our previous order dated 16th August, 2018, (NRC State Coordinator in Assam Prateek) Hajela has placed before us a district-wise data of the percentage of the population who have been excluded from the final draft NRC. Having perused the same we are of the view that the Court should consider the necessity of carrying out the sample re-verification of at least 10 per cent of the names included in the final draft NRC, if required, by a team of NSK Personnel from a neighbouring district… Hajela is also requested to submit a report in this regard and the possible timeframe when such an exercise can begin if ordered by the Court and the timeframe within which the same can be completed.” The final NRC is expected to be published on July 31. The AASU is one of the stakeholders in the case in the SC on the updation of the NRC.An official of the Home and Political Department of the Assam government told The Indian Express, “We submitted it (application) on July 9. Both Centre and State moved it.” The application has sought a sample re-verification of 20 per cent of the names in districts close to Bangladesh or where the average population growth rate is higher than the normal and 10 per cent in the remaining districts, the official said. He said it was not a new appeal by the state since they had sought the same after the draft NRC was released last year. The government has maintained that a re-verification was needed since the draft came out.center_img Advertising ExplainedWhat does re-verification entail?In the first draft of the NRC, 1.90 crore of the 3.29 crore applicants were included. In the final draft, 1.5 lakh included in first draft were excluded and a total of 2.89 crore applicants were included. The NRC authorities last month further dropped 1,02,462 names from the final draft. The names were removed because the updation process consists of continuous quality checks and verifications. Sample re-verification, if approved by the Supreme Court and carried out, would mean that in all probability more names from the final draft would be dropped.AASU’s general secretary Lurinjyoti Gogoi said, “The demand at this point of time appears to be a conspiracy to derail and delay the NRC updation process. The governments have demanded it when only a few weeks are left for the final NRC. They could have demanded it much earlier. Why demand it just when the final NRC is about to come out?” NRC deadline approaching, families stranded in Assam floods stay home, don’t want to be rescued Centre, Assam move SC, seek NRC deadline extension, sample reverification Post Comment(s)last_img read more

first_img Source:https://www.esmo.org/Press-Office/Press-Releases/CTONG1103-Lung-cancer-NSCLC-Zhong Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Oct 22 2018Neoadjuvant erlotinib benefits selected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated patients who undergo complete resection of stage IIIA-N2 stage non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), shows a randomized study comparing erlotinib with gemcitabine plus cisplatin as neoadjuvant treatment, presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich.”Our results suggest promise for the use of biomarker-guided neoadjuvant EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment strategies in stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer,’ said Dr Yi-Long Wu, Tenured Professor of Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, China who is the principal investigator of the CTONG 1103 study.”This is the first study to demonstrate progression-free survival (PFS) superiority for erlotinib over gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant setting of stage IIIA-N2 EGFR mutated NSCLC,” added Wu.Results showed that a total of 386 patients from 17 centers in China were screened, and 72 were randomized 1:1 to therapy and included in the intention-to-treat population. The objective response rate (ORR) for neoadjuvant erlotinib versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy was 54.1% (95% CI: 37.2% to 70.9%) versus 34.3% (95% CI: 17.7% to 50.8%) with an odds ratio of 2.26 (95% CI: 0.87-5.84;p=0.092). After neoadjuvant therapy, 83.8% of patients in the erlotinib group and 68·6% in the gemcitabine plus cisplatin group underwent surgery.Median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer with erlotinib at 21·5 months (95% CI: 19.3-23.6) versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy at 11.9 months (95% CI: 9.1-14.7) with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23-0.76; p=00003). Overall survival is too immature to report, said Dr Wu.Current treatment strategies for resected stage IIIA-N2 EGFR mutated NSCLC is controversial, explained Dr Wu, but he added that EGFR-TKIs have been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC.Related StoriesNew shingles vaccine reduces outbreaks of painful rash among stem cell transplant patientsStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskNew study reveals ‘clutch’ proteins responsible for putting T cell activation ‘into gear'”Cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment for stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC only gives patients 5% five-year overall survival benefit,” said Dr Wu, explaining the unmet medical need in this patient population. “Recently, the CTONG 1104 trial (2) showed for the first time that adjuvant EGFR-TKI gefitinib could improve disease free survival (DFS) by 10 months compared to adjuvant chemotherapy (28.7 months vs 18.0 months) in N1N2 resected NSCLC. This raises the possibility that EGFR-TKIs may play a beneficial role in the neoadjuvant setting for this subgroup.”Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were fewer in the erlotinib arm (0%) compared to the gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm (29.4%).Commenting on the study for ESMO, Tony Mok, Professor of Clinical Oncology, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, said that this was a long-awaited study on patients with EGFR mutation positive stage IIIA NSCLC. “It has always been tempting to offer neo-adjuvant EGFR TKI to downstage the patient for surgery, but the action stops short in absence of supporting evidence.””This randomized study is the first to demonstrate improvement in multiple parameters including tumor response rate, resection rate, major pathologic response and PFS with the use of neoadjuvant EGFR TKI followed by adjuvant TKI,” he pointed out. He added that, “While the difference between EGFR TKI and chemotherapy is significant, the impact of neoadjuvant EGFR TKI is relatively disappointing. Response rate of 54% is lower than what is expected of TKI in stage IV disease (about 70%), and only 13% of patients had attained major pathologic response. The reason for this is unclear, but one may have to query if duration of neoadjuvant EGFR TKI for 42 days is sufficient. Overall, this important study offers us the rationale to consider neo-adjuvant EGFR TKI. “last_img read more

first_imgCurta says it is important that people who snore get screened for OSA and receive proper treatment if they have the condition: By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Nov 29 2018Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)A new study has found that a common but dangerous sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) poses more of a cardiac risk to women than men. The research, which will be presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, also suggests that OSA is commonly undiagnosed among people who snore. Together with the alterations in cardiac function in the snoring group, it leads us to believe that OSA may be grossly underdiagnosed.”Adrian Curta, First Author I would encourage people who snore to ask their partner to observe them and look for phases during sleep when they stop breathing for a short while and then gasp for air. If unsure, they can spend the night at a sleep lab where breathing is constantly monitored during sleep and even slight alterations can be recorded.”Adrian Curta, First Authorcenter_img sbw18 | ShutterstockOSA arises when muscles in the throat relax and block the airway while a person is sleeping, causing them to gasp for air during sleep and snore loudly.The condition is associated with an increased risk for left ventricular dysfunction and sometimes right ventricular dysfunction, within the heart.Now, Adrian Curta (Munich University Hospital) and colleagues have assessed UK Biobank data available for individuals who had undergone a cardiac MRI scan.The participants were categorized into three groups: those who had OSA (118), those who self-reported snoring (1,886) and those who did not have OSA or who did not snore (2,477).Curta and colleagues report that among both men and women in the OSA and snoring groups, left ventricular mass was increased, compared with those who did not have OSA or snore. This means that in the OSA and snoring groups, the walls of the heart’s main pumping chamber were enlarged, making the heart work harder, says Curta.When they compared those with OSA who snored to those who did not have OSA or snore, the researchers found that a significant difference in the left ventricular mass of women, which was less pronounced than in men.”We found that the cardiac parameters in women appear to be more easily affected by the disease and that women who snore or have OSA might be at greater risk for cardiac involvement,” says Curta.The team also found that the number of individuals with OSA who had received a diagnosis was extremely low. SourceSnoring poses greater cardiac risk to women.last_img read more

Explore further © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation: India asks Cambridge Analytica for information on data (2018, March 23) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-india-cambridge-analytica.html Firefox maker Mozilla to stop Facebook advertising because of data scandal India’s government on Friday sent a notice to U.K.-based Cambridge Analytica asking whether it has misused data to profile Indians and influence their elections. The data-mining firm faces accusation of lifting the Facebook profiles of more than 50 million users without their permission in order to manipulate elections. Authorities in both the United States and Britain are investigating both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica.The firm has denied any wrongdoing.The Indian government also demanded the name of the entities that engaged Cambridge Analytica and the method used by it for possession of data and whether consent was taken from users.Governing Bharatiya Janata Party and main opposition Congress Party have accused each other of utilizing the services of the company.The government set a March 31 deadline for the company to respond to its inquiry.Earlier this week, India’s Law and Information Technology Minster Ravi Shankar Prasad warned Facebook of “stringent” action for any attempt to influence polls through data theft, and threatened to summon CEO Mark Zuckerberg, if needed.Facebook has over 200 million users in India, the Press Trust of India news agency said.”The government is deeply concerned about such developments and is committed to ensure the protection of the fundamental right of privacy and safety and security of data for every citizen of India. There have also been imputations that such data could also have been used to influence the behavior of individuals,” PTI quoted India’s Information Technology Ministry said. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

A conceptual illustration for thermal-to-visible synthesis for interoperability with existing visible-based facial recognition systems. Credit: Eric Proctor, William Parks and Benjamin S. Riggan Citation: Team develops face recognition technology that works in the dark (2018, April 16) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-team-recognition-technology-dark.html Provided by U.S. Army Research Laboratory Army researchers have developed an artificial intelligence and machine learning technique that produces a visible face image from a thermal image of a person’s face captured in low-light or nighttime conditions. This development could lead to enhanced real-time biometrics and post-mission forensic analysis for covert nighttime operations. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Thermal cameras like FLIR, or Forward Looking Infrared, sensors are actively deployed on aerial and ground vehicles, in watch towers and at check points for surveillance purposes. More recently, thermal cameras are becoming available for use as body-worn cameras. The ability to perform automatic face recognition at nighttime using such thermal cameras is beneficial for informing a Soldier that an individual is someone of interest, like someone who may be on a watch list.The motivations for this technology—developed by Drs. Benjamin S. Riggan, Nathaniel J. Short and Shuowen “Sean” Hu, from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory—are to enhance both automatic and human-matching capabilities.”This technology enables matching between thermal face images and existing biometric face databases/watch lists that only contain visible face imagery,” said Riggan, a research scientist. “The technology provides a way for humans to visually compare visible and thermal facial imagery through thermal-to-visible face synthesis.”He said under nighttime and low-light conditions, there is insufficient light for a conventional camera to capture facial imagery for recognition without active illumination such as a flash or spotlight, which would give away the position of such surveillance cameras; however, thermal cameras that capture the heat signature naturally emanating from living skin tissue are ideal for such conditions.”When using thermal cameras to capture facial imagery, the main challenge is that the captured thermal image must be matched against a watch list or gallery that only contains conventional visible imagery from known persons of interest,” Riggan said. “Therefore, the problem becomes what is referred to as cross-spectrum, or heterogeneous, face recognition. In this case, facial probe imagery acquired in one modality is matched against a gallery database acquired using a different imaging modality.”This approach leverages advanced domain adaptation techniques based on deep neural networks. The fundamental approach is composed of two key parts: a non-linear regression model that maps a given thermal image into a corresponding visible latent representation and an optimization problem that projects the latent projection back into the image space. Details of this work were presented in March in a technical paper “Thermal to Visible Synthesis of Face Images using Multiple Regions” at the IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, or WACV, in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, which is a technical conference comprised of scholars and scientists from academia, industry and government.At the conference, Army researchers demonstrated that combining global information, such as the features from the across the entire face, and local information, such as features from discriminative fiducial regions, for example, eyes, nose and mouth, enhanced the discriminability of the synthesized imagery. They showed how the thermal-to-visible mapped representations from both global and local regions in the thermal face signature could be used in conjunction to synthesize a refined visible face image.The optimization problem for synthesizing an image attempts to jointly preserve the shape of the entire face and appearance of the local fiducial details. Using the synthesized thermal-to-visible imagery and existing visible gallery imagery, they performed face verification experiments using a common open source deep neural network architecture for face recognition. The architecture used is explicitly designed for visible-based face recognition. The most surprising result is that their approach achieved better verification performance than a generative adversarial network-based approach, which previously showed photo-realistic properties.Riggan attributes this result to the fact the game theoretic objective for GANs immediately seeks to generate imagery that is sufficiently similar in dynamic range and photo-like appearance to the training imagery, while sometimes neglecting to preserve identifying characteristics, he said. The approach developed by ARL preserves identity information to enhance discriminability, for example, increased recognition accuracy for both automatic face recognition algorithms and human adjudication.As part of the paper presentation, ARL researchers showcased a near real-time demonstration of this technology. The proof of concept demonstration included the use of a FLIR Boson 320 thermal camera and a laptop running the algorithm in near real-time. This demonstration showed the audience that a captured thermal image of a person can be used to produce a synthesized visible image in situ. This work received a best paper award in the faces/biometrics session of the conference, out of more than 70 papers presented.Riggan said he and his colleagues will continue to extend this research under the sponsorship of the Defense Forensics and Biometrics Agency to develop a robust nighttime face recognition capability for the Soldier. New technique uncovers hidden face behind cosmetic paints read more